1. Neural mechanisms for artificial grammar processing
Reber (1967) investigated artificial grammar learning (AGL) for study of implicit learning, and AGL has served as an evidence that men have ability for learning of new languages implicitly in adults after the ‘critical period’. fMRI has provided data that indicate AGL activate the language centre such as Broca’s area,collaborating a view that AGL paradigm capture the core mechanisms of language, namely syntax, without any effect of semantics. The seminal paper by Fitch, Hauser, & Chomsky (2002), has boosted AGL studies contrasting context-free grammar (CFG) and regular grammar (RG). The main finding was that humans can process both CFG and RG, but monkeys can only RG. Using fMRI, Friederici et al., supported this finding by showing that CFG activated Broca’s area but RG did the frontal operculum instead of Broca’s area.
2. Primate sequential actions before emergences of hierarchical structures
Animal sequential behaviour such as bird songs have been comparatively tested with the human language syntax, and most researchers have believed that the lacks of hierarchy organizations in the sequential actions of animal behaviours were a key component to divide animal songs from our language syntactic rules. Here I talked our recent progress of grammatical analysis of gibbon songs or sequential analysis of monkeys action patterns. Together with the evidence of the other animals, I will attempt to discuss a possible evolutionary causation to provide only us a hierarchy complexity.
3. Systems underlying human and nonhuman primate communication: One, two, or infinite
•宮川繁(MIT) & Esther Clarke(Durham University/MIT)
Using artificially synthesized stimuli, previous research has shown that cotton-top tamarin monkeys easily learn simple AB grammar sequences, but not the more complex AnBn sequences that require hierarchical structure. Humans have no trouble learning AnBn combinations. A more recent study, using similar artificially created stimuli, showed that there is a neuroanatomical difference in the brain between these two kinds of arrays. While the simpler AB sequences recruit the frontal operculum, the AnBn array recruits the phylogenetically newer Broca’s area. We propose that on close inspection, reported vocal repertoires of Old World Monkeys show that these nonhuman primates are capable of calls that have two items in them, but never more than two. These are simple AB sequences, as predicted by previous research. In addition, we suggest the two-item call cannot be the result of a combinatorial operation that we see in human language, where the recursive operation of Merge allows for a potentially infinite array of structures. In our view, the two-item calls of nonhuman primates result from a dual-compartment frame into which each of the calls can fit without having to be combined by an operation such as Merge. This is expected if the two-term calls arise from recruiting the frontal operculum, which is known to combine two items, but never more than two.
プログラム： 8月13日（火）Roles of Gesture in Language and Communication
Gestures and the origin of language – Michael Corballis, Emeritus Professor, University of Auckland
What children’s gestures tell us about evolution of language – Sotaro Kita, Professor, University of Warwick
Origins of non-linguistic gestural communication – Ulf Liszkowski, Professor, University of Hamburg
8月15日（木）Time, Gesture and Evolution of Language
The evolution of human language – Michael Corballis, Emeritus Professor, University of Auckland
Children create design features of language – Sotaro Kita, University of Warwick
講師：Mercedes Okumura（Laboratory for Human Evolutionary Studies, Institute of Biosciences, University of São Paulo, Brazil）
タイトル：Stone Tools, Language and the Brain in Human Evolution
要旨：This talk aims to present the state-of-the-art research on the interplay among stone tool making, brain size, and the origins of language in human evolution. We will address the use of tools in non-human animals and its adaptive significance, as well as the main innovations observed in tool making along the evolutionary history of humans. We will also discuss how changes in the brain size and shape in the hominin lineage could be related to both tool making and language.
We are running two research projects entitled “Adolescent Sociality across Cultures: Establishing a Japan-UK Collaboration” and “Evolinguistics: Integrative Studies of Language Evolution for Co-creative Communication”. These two projects share many topics, such as life history evolution, cultural transmission, social network, communication, cognitive development, and (allo)parental investment, including general evolutionary and ecological foundations of humans. This symposium provides an opportunity to explore ideas, to build research networks, and to advance more integrated approaches. We will welcome 7 speakers (including 5 researchers based in the UK) whose talks cover several aspects of the adolescent sociality and language evolution. Organizers hope that you can enjoy this symposium like ALE beer! (or your favorite something!)
The Evolving Language Capacity in the Lineage of Genus Homo
Dieter Hillert 教授（San Diego State Univ, USA)によるレクチャー “The Evolving Language Capacity in the Lineage of Genus Homo” を開催します。
会場：東京大学駒場Iキャンパス 3号館2F 211A号室
A unique trait of modern humans is to use symbols in a recursive fashion to express thoughts. This neurally implemented language capacity evolved after the split from genus Pan about 6 ma (years ago) leading to modern humans. It has been said however that the language capacity emerged more recently with the appearance of behavioral modernity ca. 100-50 k years ago. In considering genetic and neuroanatomical findings but also records about prehistoric cultural traditions, it seems reasonable to assume that the biological capacity for language may have evolved much earlier than previously thought not only in modern humans about also in our sister species Neanderthals and Denisovans. Linguistic fossils, traces of a linear grammar, which can be found in various forms of languages, point moreover to a premodern language stage. We draw conclusions about the possible language capacity of Homo erectus, which may have been an a priori condition for the emergence of a recursive modern language capacity.
連絡：岡ノ谷 一夫 <email@example.com>
13:00-15:00 Session One: Cultural Influence on cognitive development in individuals with ASD (Chair: Masahiro Hirai, Jichi Medical University, Japan)
13:00-13:40: Understanding social behaviour in Autism: What ca cross-cultural comparisons offer? (Deborah Riby & Mary Hanley, Durham University, UK)
13:40-14:20: Diversity in socio-cultural experience influences early development of social cognition (Atsushi Senju, Birkbeck, University of London, UK)
14:20-15:00: From the lab to the field in LMICs: assessment of children with ASD in Delhi (Georgia Lockwood Estrin, Birkbeck, University of London, UK)
15:00- 15:30 Short break
15:30-17:30: Session Two: Experiences of stakeholders across different cultures (Chair: Kosuke Asada, Hakuoh University, Japan)
15:30-16:10: Understanding, awareness and estimated prevalence of autism in Nepal (Michelle Heys, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London and East London NHS foundation trust, UK)
16:10-16:50: Introduction to Tojisha-kenkyu: Co-production of autism research in Japan (Shin-ichiro Kumagaya, The University of Tokyo, Japan)
16:50-17:30: Toward Inclusive Society for Autism Spectrum: Action research on the methodology of Tojisha-kenkyu, Societal Mainstream Studies, and Accessible Information Design for AS (Satsuki Ayaya, The University of Tokyo, Japan)
17:30-18:00 General Discussion
Evolinguistics Workshop 2019
Hierarchy, intention sharing, and language evolution: Beyond interdisciplinary conceptual barriers
本領域の2つの中心概念である階層性と意図共有に関わる講演・研究発表を通じて、研究者間の学際的な交流を図るワークショップを二日間にわたって開催します。ケルン大の Language and Music in Cognition プロジェクトとの共催となります。
新学術領域『共創言語進化』では 「東京共創言語進化学講座」（Tokyo Lectures in Evolinguistics 2019）と題して，以下の要領で言語進化学の春季講習会を開催します。詳細は特設サイトをご覧ください。
日時： 2019年3月11 日（月）~ 3月13日（水）
場所： 東京大学 駒場Iキャンパス 21 KOMCEE West B1Fレクチャーホール
Ljiljana Progovac (Linguistics Department, Wayne State University)
Kenny Smith (School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh)
Stephanie White (Brain Research Institute, UCLA)
10：15～11：10 脳機能画像にもとづく発達障害の生物学的指標の探索：安静時機能ネットワークを中心に 橋本龍一郎（首都大学東京・昭和大学）
11：15～12：10 鳥類・齧歯類における発声制御の動機づけ機構 岡ノ谷一夫（東京大学）
13：15～14：10 Neuroanatomical considerations on the linguistic merging mechanism in humans
Emiliano Zaccarella（Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences）
14：15～15：10 自閉症スペクトラム障害（ASD）と社会的コミュニケーション障害（SCD）の関係 若林明雄（千葉大学）
Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying behavior presents a formidable challenge requiring a well-chosen model system and sophisticated experimental tools. Vocalizations of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) are an exceptionally well suited model system for this objective. In this species, a simplified mechanism of vocal production allows straightforward interpretations of neuronal activity with respect to behavior, and neural mechanisms of calling can be studied in vitro because fictive vocalizations can be elicited in the isolated brain. Furthermore, the vocalizations of Xenopus are sexually differentiated, and rapid androgen-induced masculinization of female vocalizations provides an invaluable opportunity for determining how new behavior arises from existing neural circuits in response to steroid hormones. In my talk, I will discuss how the vocal central pattern generators (CPG) are constructed, and an unexpected discovery of feedback pathways within the CPG that play a critical role in the rhythm generation. In addition, I will describe our work developing a technique to deliver transgenes into the frog nervous system.
会場：東京大学駒場１キャンパス KOMCEE West B1F レクチャーホール・MMホール（キャンパスマップ）
Fish as model systems for vocal communication and hearing research
Teleost fish comprise the largest group of extant vertebrates displaying the greatest diversity in sound producing apparatus and sensory hearing structures for social communication and orientation. Neural circuitry controlling vocal behaviour in vertebrates seems to have evolved from conserved brain areas found in ancestral fish before they diverged into the major clades. Thus, studies that investigate acoustic communication systems in this taxon are important to gain a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying social acoustic communication.
Moreover, studying organisms from an early diverging vertebrate lineage such as fish is essential to comprehend the evolution and function of the vertebrate inner ear, since many early developmental events are evolutionary conserved.
In this talk I will focus on the social role and physiological mechanisms controlling acoustic communication in toadfishes (Batrachoididae). I will further discuss current research on auditory plasticity and development of auditory function using both models – toadfish and zebrafish (Danio rerio, Cyprinidae).
In recent linguistic theory and the Minimalist Program in particular, the interface between linguistic and non-linguistic cognition has come to be of critical importance in the study of the nature of the faculty of language. In this regard, Un-Cartesian linguistics has radicalized old ideas about the nature of this interface, according to which the intrusion of language into the brain has reformatted primate cognition, creating a novel neural infrastructure in which human-specific thought can arise and without which it is unavailable. If so, there is no interface between two independent systems of language and thought in humans, and generativity in language and human-specific thought are the same. New evidence for this hypothesis comes from thought disturbances (psychopathologies). Un-Cartesian linguistics predicts that such disturbances must involve language disturbances. I will review recent evidence from my lab testing this prediction in three clinical populations: children and adolescents with autism who do not develop language in any modality, whether in production or in comprehension; patients with formal thought disorder, a symptom of schizophrenia; and patients with Huntington’s disease, an early dementia. It turns out that in all three cases, there is strong evidence that thought disintegration is mirrored in language disintegration, in a way that appears to be independent of non-linguistic neuro-psychological deficits. It is thus potentially key to better understanding these disorders and the connection between language and thought at large.