•問い合わせ先: 香田啓貴(koda.hiroki.7a[at]kyoto-u.ac.jp) #atを@に変えてください
•14:30 – 14:35 趣旨説明
•14:35 – 14:55
◦Neural mechanisms for artificial grammar processing
•14:55 – 15:15
◦Primate sequential actions before emergences of hierarchical structures
•15:15 – 15:55
◦Systems underlying human and nonhuman primate communication: One, two, or infinite
◦宮川繁(MIT) & Esther Clarke(Durham University/MIT)
•15:55 – 16:00 5分休憩
•16:00 – 16:30 総合討論. 指定討論者：外谷弦太(JAIST)・水原誠子(東京大学)
1. Neural mechanisms for artificial grammar processing
Reber (1967) investigated artificial grammar learning (AGL) for study of implicit learning, and AGL has served as an evidence that men have ability for learning of new languages implicitly in adults after the ‘critical period’. fMRI has provided data that indicate AGL activate the language centre such as Broca’s area,collaborating a view that AGL paradigm capture the core mechanisms of language, namely syntax, without any effect of semantics. The seminal paper by Fitch, Hauser, & Chomsky (2002), has boosted AGL studies contrasting context-free grammar (CFG) and regular grammar (RG). The main finding was that humans can process both CFG and RG, but monkeys can only RG. Using fMRI, Friederici et al., supported this finding by showing that CFG activated Broca’s area but RG did the frontal operculum instead of Broca’s area.
2. Primate sequential actions before emergences of hierarchical structures
Animal sequential behaviour such as bird songs have been comparatively tested with the human language syntax, and most researchers have believed that the lacks of hierarchy organizations in the sequential actions of animal behaviours were a key component to divide animal songs from our language syntactic rules. Here I talked our recent progress of grammatical analysis of gibbon songs or sequential analysis of monkeys action patterns. Together with the evidence of the other animals, I will attempt to discuss a possible evolutionary causation to provide only us a hierarchy complexity.
3. Systems underlying human and nonhuman primate communication: One, two, or infinite
•宮川繁(MIT) & Esther Clarke(Durham University/MIT)
Using artificially synthesized stimuli, previous research has shown that cotton-top tamarin monkeys easily learn simple AB grammar sequences, but not the more complex AnBn sequences that require hierarchical structure. Humans have no trouble learning AnBn combinations. A more recent study, using similar artificially created stimuli, showed that there is a neuroanatomical difference in the brain between these two kinds of arrays. While the simpler AB sequences recruit the frontal operculum, the AnBn array recruits the phylogenetically newer Broca’s area. We propose that on close inspection, reported vocal repertoires of Old World Monkeys show that these nonhuman primates are capable of calls that have two items in them, but never more than two. These are simple AB sequences, as predicted by previous research. In addition, we suggest the two-item call cannot be the result of a combinatorial operation that we see in human language, where the recursive operation of Merge allows for a potentially infinite array of structures. In our view, the two-item calls of nonhuman primates result from a dual-compartment frame into which each of the calls can fit without having to be combined by an operation such as Merge. This is expected if the two-term calls arise from recruiting the frontal operculum, which is known to combine two items, but never more than two.